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Synthesis and testing of 2-deoxy-2,2-dihaloglycosides as mechanism-based inhibitors of alpha-glycosidases

TitleSynthesis and testing of 2-deoxy-2,2-dihaloglycosides as mechanism-based inhibitors of alpha-glycosidases
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2008
AuthorsZhang, R, McCarter, JD, Braun, C, Yeung, W, Brayer, GD, Withers, SG
Date PublishedAPR 18

The synthesis of a series of 2-deoxy-2,2-dihaloglycosyl halides as potential alpha-glycosidase inactivators has been achieved via the halogenation of protected 2-fluoroglycal precursors. Direct chlorination of per-O-acetylated 2-fluoro-D-glucal and 2-fluoromaltal followed by basic deprotection yielded the corresponding 2-chloro-2-deoxy-2-fluoroglycosyl chlorides. Reaction of the per-O-acetylated 2-fluoroglycals with acetyl hypofluorite or Selectfluor yielded the 2-deoxy-2,2-difluoroglycosyl derivatives, which were converted to their alpha-chlorides using thionyl chloride and deprotected under basic conditions. Trinitrophenyl glycosides of the 2-deoxy-2,2-difluoro mono- and disaccharides were synthesized by arylation of the hemiacetals with picryl fluoride, then deprotected with HCl in methanol. All three monosaccharide derivatives caused active site-directed, time-dependent inactivation of yeast a-glucosidase via the trapping of covalent glycosyl-enzyme intermediates, and kinetic parameters for inactivation by each compound were determined. Surprisingly neither of the 2-deoxy-2,2-dihalomaltosyl chlorides caused time-dependent inactivation of human pancreatic a-amylase, despite the fact that the trinitrophenyl 2-deoxy-2,2-difluoromaltoside functioned in that mode. The trinitrophenyl glycosides appear to be approximately 1000-fold more reactive than the corresponding chlorides in the enzyme active sites.