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Near-Infrared Absorbing Azo Dyes: Synthesis and X-ray Crystallographic and Spectral Characterization of Monoazopyrroles, Bisazopyrroles, and a Boron-Azopyrrole Complex

TitleNear-Infrared Absorbing Azo Dyes: Synthesis and X-ray Crystallographic and Spectral Characterization of Monoazopyrroles, Bisazopyrroles, and a Boron-Azopyrrole Complex
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2009
AuthorsLi, Y, Patrick, BO, Dolphin, D
JournalJournal of Organic Chemistry
Volume74
Pagination5237-5243
Date PublishedAug
Type of ArticleArticle
ISBN Number0022-3263
KeywordsC-13 NMR, CI-DISPERSE-ORANGE-29, CRYSTAL-STRUCTURE, DERIVATIVES, DISAZO DYES, HETEROCYCLIC DIAZO COMPONENTS, INTRAMOLECULAR PROTON-TRANSFER, NONLINEARITIES, optical, PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY, SOLID-STATE
Abstract

Symmetric 2,5-bisazopyrroles 2(a-d) were synthesized by a one-step reaction of substituted phenyl diazonium salts [R’(Ph)N2+Cl-] [a, R’= 4-N(CH3)(2); b, R’ = 2OH; c, R’ = 2-CO2H; d, R’ = 4-NO2] with pyrrole under basic conditions. Asymmetric 2,5-bisazopyrroles 3(a-d) were synthesized by reacting substituted phenyl diazonium salts [R ’’(Ph)N2+Cl-] (a, R ’’ = 4-OCH3; b, R ’’ = H; c, R ’’ = 4-Br; d, R ’’ = 4-NO2) with 2-(4-dimethylaminophenylazo)-1H-pyrrole (1a) under the same conditions. The reactions of 2a with boron trifluoride and iodomethane provided a BF2-azopyrrole complex of 1H-pyrrolo[2,1-c]-1,2,4,5-boratriazole (4) and 2,5-bisazo-1-methylpyrrole 5. X-ray crystallographic and spectral analysis of la, 2a, 2b, and 4 showed that la has three crystal forms: 1a(I), 1a(II), and 1a(III), the latter two bearing a bicyclic ring system formed via intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Complex 4 was found to be the most planar due to a rigid trans-azo configuration and has the longest N=N bond distances (1.322 and 1.300 angstrom) and wavelength of maximum absorption (754 nm). The N=N bond distances increase in the sequence of monoazopyrrole [1a(1): 1,253 angstrom], bisazopyrrole (2a: 1.283 angstrom), bisazopyrrole with intramolecular hydrogen bonding (2b: 1,293 and 1.293 angstrom), and the BF2-azopyrrole complex. Their maximum absorptions shift bathochromically in the sequence of monoazopyrrole (1a: 443 nm), bisazopyrroles [2(a-d), 3(a-d), 5: 486-615 nm), and the BF2-azopyrrole complex. These results are important for the design of near-infrared absorbing azo dyes and suggest an efficient path for the preparation of near-infrared absorbing azo dyes by effectively enhancing pi-electron delocalization.

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