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Nanomechanical Properties of Tenascin-X Revealed by Single-Molecule Force Spectroscopy

TitleNanomechanical Properties of Tenascin-X Revealed by Single-Molecule Force Spectroscopy
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2009
AuthorsJollymore, A, Lethias, C, Peng, Q, Cao, Y, Li, HB
JournalJournal of Molecular Biology
Date PublishedJan
Type of ArticleArticle
ISBN Number0022-2836
KeywordsAFM, BINDING, DEFICIENCY, DOMAINS, FAMILY, FnIII domains, IDENTIFICATION, III MODULES, MECHANICAL STABILITY, mechanical unfolding, microscopy, PROTEIN, single molecule force spectroscopy, tenascin

Tenascin-X is an extracellular matrix protein and binds a variety of molecules in extracellular matrix and on cell membrane. Tenascin-X plays important roles in regulating the structure and mechanical properties of connective tissues. Using single-molecule atomic force microscopy, we have investigated the mechanical properties of bovine tenascin-X in detail. Our results indicated that tenascin-X is an elastic protein and the fibronectin type III (FnIII) domains can unfold under a stretching force and refold to regain their mechanical stability upon the removal of the stretching force. All the 30 FnIII domains of tenascin-X show similar mechanical stability, mechanical unfolding kinetics, and contour length increment upon domain unfolding, despite their large sequence diversity. In contrast to the homogeneity in their mechanical unfolding behaviors, FnIII domains fold at different rates. Using the 10th FnIII domain of tenascin-X (TNXfn10) as a model system, we constructed a polyprotein chimera composed of alternating TNXfn10 and GB1 domains and used. atomic force microscopy to confirm that the mechanical properties of TNXfn10 are consistent with those of the FnIII domains of tenascin-X These results lay the foundation to further study the mechanical properties of individual FnIII domains and establish the relationship between point mutations and mechanical phenotypic effect on tenascin-X Moreover, our results provided the opportunity to compare the mechanical properties and design of different forms of tenascins. The comparison between tenascin-X and tenascin-C revealed interesting common as well as distinguishing features for mechanical unfolding and folding of tenascin-C and tenascin-X and will open up new avenues to investigate the mechanical. functions and architectural design of different forms of tenascins. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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