|Title||Heterogeneous nucleation of ice in (NH4)(2)SO4-H2O particles with mineral dust immersions|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2002|
|Authors||Zuberi, B, Bertram, AK, Cassa, CA, Molina, LT, Molina, MJ|
|Journal||Geophysical Research Letters|
Using optical microscopy, we investigated the heterogeneous nucleation of ice in aqueous (NH4)(2)SO4-H2O particles containing two types of mineral dusts, kaolinite and montmorillonite. The efficacy of montmorillonite and kaolinite to nucleate ice in (NH4)(2)SO4-H2O particles is similar. The difference in freezing temperatures, compared to the homogeneous freezing temperatures, is found to vary from 8-20 K and it is larger for particles with concentrations greater than 27 wt %. Our freezing data shows that for temperatures ranging from 239 K to 198 K, ice super-saturations between 1.35 and 1.51 are required for ice to heterogeneously nucleate in NH4SO4-H2O particles containing mineral dust immersions. Based on our results, we conclude mineral dust is an efficient nuclei for ice in NH4SO4-H2O aerosols and as a result, it can initiate the formation of upper tropospheric ice clouds at warmer temperatures and lower super-saturations in comparison to homogeneous freezing.