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Glycosyl fluorides in enzymatic reactions

TitleGlycosyl fluorides in enzymatic reactions
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2000
AuthorsWilliams, SJ, Withers, SG
Date PublishedJUL 10

Glycosyl fluorides have considerable importance as substrates and inhibitors in enzymatic reactions. Their good combination of stability and reactivity has enabled their use as glycosyl donors with a variety of carbohydrate processing enzymes. Moreover, the installation of fluorine elsewhere on the carbohydrate scaffold commonly modifies the properties of the glycosyl fluoride such that the resultant compounds act as slow substrates or even inhibitors of enzyme action. This review covers the use of glycosyl fluorides as substrates for wild-type and mutant glycosidases and other enzymes that catalyze glycosyl transfer. The use of substituted glycosyl fluorides as inhibitors of enzymes that catalyze glycosyl transfer and as tools for investigation of their mechanism is discussed, including the labeling of active site residues. Synthetic applications in which glycosyl fluorides are used as glycosyl donors in enzymatic transglycosylation reactions for the synthesis of oligo- and polysaccharides are then covered, including the use of mutant glycosidases, the so-called glycosynthases, which are able to catalyze the formation of glycosides without competing hydrolysis. Finally, a short overview of the use of glycosyl fluorides as substrates and inhibitors of phosphorylases and phosphoglucomutase is given. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.