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Differential mechanism-based labeling and unequivocal activity assignment of the two active sites of intestinal lactase/phlorizin hydrolase

TitleDifferential mechanism-based labeling and unequivocal activity assignment of the two active sites of intestinal lactase/phlorizin hydrolase
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2000
AuthorsArribas, JCD, Herrero, AG, Martin-Lomas, M, Canada, FJ, He, SM, Withers, SG
JournalEUROPEAN JOURNAL OF BIOCHEMISTRY
Volume267
Pagination6996-7005
Date PublishedDEC
ISSN0014-2956
Abstract

Milk lactose is hydrolysed to galactose and glucose in the small intestine of mammals by the lactase/phlorizin hydrolase complex (LPH; EC 3.2.1.108/62). The two enzymatic activities, lactase and phlorizin hydrolase, are located in the same polypeptide chain. According to sequence homology, mature LPH contains two different regions (III and IV), each of them homologous to family 1 glycosidases and each with a putative active site. There has been some discrepancy with regard to the assignment of enzymatic activity to the two active sites. Here we show differential reactivity of the two active sites with mechanism-based glycosidase inhibitors. When LPH is treated with 2',4'-dinitrophenyl 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta -D-glucopyranoside (1) and 2',4'-dinitrophenyl-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-beta -D-galactopyranoside (2), known mechanism-based inhibitors of glycosidases, it is observed that compound 1 preferentially inactivates the phlorizin hydrolase activity whereas compound 2 is selective for the lactase active site. On the other hand, glycals (D-glucal and D-galactal) competitively inhibit lactase activity but not phlorizin hydrolase activity. This allows labeling of the phlorizin site with compound 1 by protection with a glycal. By differential labeling of each active site using 1 and 2 followed by proteolysis and MS analysis of the labeled fragments, we confirm that the phlorizin hydrolysis occurs mainly at the active site located at region III of LPH and that the active site located at region IV is responsible for the lactase activity. This assignment is coincident with that proposed from the results of recent active-site mutagenesis studies {[}Zecca, L., Mesonero, J.E., Stutz, A., Poiree, J.C., Giudicelli, J., Cursio, R., Gloor, S.M. & Semenza, G. (1998) FEES Lett. 435, 225-228] and opposite to that based on data from early affinity labeling with conduritol B epoxide {[}Wacker, W., Keller, P., Falchetto, R., Legler, G. & Semenza, G. (1992).

DOI10.1046/j.1432-1327.2000.01784.x