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Biochemical and structural assessment of the 1-N-azasugar GalNAc-isofagomine as a potent family 20 beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase inhibitor

TitleBiochemical and structural assessment of the 1-N-azasugar GalNAc-isofagomine as a potent family 20 beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase inhibitor
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2001
AuthorsMark, BL, Vocadlo, DJ, Zhao, DL, Knapp, S, Withers, SG, James, MNG
JournalJOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL CHEMISTRY
Volume276
Pagination42131-42137
Date PublishedNOV 9
ISSN0021-9258
Abstract

Azasugar inhibitors of the isofagomine class are potent competitive inhibitors of configuration-retaining beta -glycosidases. This potency results from the formation of a strong electrostatic interaction between a protonated endocyclic nitrogen at the ``anomeric{''} center of the inhibitor and the catalytic nucleophile of the enzyme. Although the majority of retaining beta -glycosidases use a mechanism involving a carboxylate residue as a nucleophile, Streptomyces plicatus beta -N-acetylhexosaminidase (SpHEX) and related family 20 glycosidases lack such a catalytic residue and use instead the carbonyl oxygen of the 2-acetamido group of the substrate as a nucleophile to ``attack{''} the anomeric center. Thus, a strong electrostatic interaction between the inhibitor and enzyme is not expected to occur; nonetheless, the 1-N-azasugar (2R,3R,4S,5R)-2-acetamido-3,4-dihydroxy5-hydroxymethyl-piperidinium hydrochloride (Ga1NAc-isofagomine . HCl), which was synthesized and assayed for its ability to inhibit SpHEX, was found to be a potent competitive inhibitor of the enzyme (K-i = 2.7 mum). A crystallographic complex of Ga1NAc-isofagomine bound to SpHEX was solved and refined to 1.75 Angstrom and revealed that the lack of a strong electrostatic interaction between the ``anomeric{''} center of Ga1NAc-isofagomine and SpHEX is compensated for by a novel 2.8-Angstrom hydrogen bond formed between the equatorial proton of the endocyclic nitrogen of the azasugar ring and the carboxylate of the general acid-base residue Glu-314 of SpHEX. This interaction appears to contribute to the unexpected potency of Ga1NAc-isofagomine toward SpHEX.

DOI10.1074/jbc.M107154200