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BINDING-ENERGY AND CATALYSIS - FLUORINATED AND DEOXYGENATED GLYCOSIDES AS MECHANISTIC PROBES OF ESCHERICHIA-COLI (LACZ) BETA-GALACTOSIDASE

TitleBINDING-ENERGY AND CATALYSIS - FLUORINATED AND DEOXYGENATED GLYCOSIDES AS MECHANISTIC PROBES OF ESCHERICHIA-COLI (LACZ) BETA-GALACTOSIDASE
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication1992
AuthorsMCCARTER, JD, ADAM, MJ, Withers, SG
JournalBIOCHEMICAL JOURNAL
Volume286
Pagination721-727
Date PublishedSEP 15
ISSN0264-6021
Abstract

Kinetic parameters for the hydrolysis of a series of deoxy and deoxyfluoro analogues of 2',4'-dinitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside by Escherichia coli (lacZ) beta-galactosidase have been determined and rates found to be two to nine orders of magnitude lower than that for the parent compound. These large rate reductions result primarily from the loss of transition-state binding interactions due to the replacement of sugar hydroxy groups, and such interactions are estimated to contribute at least 16.7 kJ (4 kcal).mol-1 to binding at the 3, 4 and 6 positions and more than 33.5 kJ (8 kcal).mol-1 at the 2 position. The existence of a linear free-energy relationship between log(k(cat.)/K(m)) for these compounds and the logarithm of the first-order rate constant for their spontaneous hydrolysis demonstrates that electronic effects are also important and provides direct evidence for oxocarbonium ion character in the enzymic transition state. A covalent intermediate which turns over only extremely slowly (t1/2 = 45 h) accumulates during hydrolysis of the 2-deoxyfluorogalactoside, and kinetic parameters for its formation have been determined. This intermediate is nonetheless catalytically competent, since it re-activates much more rapidly in the presence of the transglycosylation acceptors methanol or glucose, thereby providing support for the notion of a covalent intermediate during hydrolysis of the parent substrates.