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Active-site mapping of a Populus xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase with a library of xylogluco-oligosaccharides

TitleActive-site mapping of a Populus xyloglucan endo-transglycosylase with a library of xylogluco-oligosaccharides
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2008
AuthorsSaura-Valls, M, Faure, R, Brumer, H, Teeri, TT, Cottaz, S, Driguez, H, Planas, A
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry

Restructuring the network of xyloglucan (XG) and cellulose during plant cell wall morphogenesis involves the action of xyloglucan endo-transglycosylases (XETs). They cleave the XG chains and transfer the enzyme-bound XG fragment to another XG molecule, thus allowing transient loosening of the cell wall and also incorporation of nascent XG during expansion. The substrate specificity of a XET from Populus (PttXET16-34) has been analyzed by mapping the enzyme binding site with a library of xylogluco-oligosaccharides as donor substrates using a labeled heptasaccharide as acceptor. The extended binding cleft of the enzyme is composed of four negative and three positive subsites (with the catalytic residues between subsites -1 and + 1). Donor binding is dominated by the higher affinity of the XXXGmoiety (G = Glc beta(1 -> 4) and X = Xyl alpha(1 -> 6)Glc beta(1 -> 4)) of the substrate for positive subsites, whereas negative subsites have a more relaxed specificity, able to bind (and transfer to the acceptor) a cello-oligosaccharyl moiety of hybrid substrates such as GGGGXXXG. Subsite mapping with k(cat)/K(m) values for the donor substrates showed that a GG-unit on negative and-XXG on positive subsites are the minimal requirements for activity. Subsites -2 and -3 (for backbone Glc residues) and +2’ (for Xyl substitution at Glc in subsite +2) have the largest contribution to transition state stabilization. GalGXXXGXXXG (Gal = Gal beta(1 -> 4)) is the best donor substrate with a "blocked" nonreducing end that prevents polymerization reactions and yields a single transglycosylation product. Its kinetics have unambiguously established that the enzyme operates by a ping-pong mechanism with competitive inhibition by the acceptor.