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Three TaFAR genes function in the biosynthesis of primary alcohols and the response to abiotic stresses in Triticum aestivum

TitleThree TaFAR genes function in the biosynthesis of primary alcohols and the response to abiotic stresses in Triticum aestivum
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsWang, M, Wang, Y, Wu, H, Xu, J, Li, T, Hegebarth, D, Jetter, R, Chen, L, Wang, Z
JournalSCIENTIFIC REPORTS
Volume6
Pagination25008
Date PublishedAPR 26
ISSN2045-2322
Abstract

Cuticular waxes play crucial roles in protecting plants against biotic and abiotic stresses. They are complex mixtures of very-long-chain fatty acids and their derivatives, including C20-C32 fatty alcohols. Here, we report the identification of 32 FAR-like genes and the detailed characterization of TaFAR2, TaFAR3 and TaFAR4, wax biosynthetic genes encoding fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase (FAR) in wheat leaf cuticle. Heterologous expression of the three TaFARs in wild-type yeast and mutated yeast showed that TaFAR2, TaFAR3 and TaFAR4 were predominantly responsible for the accumulation of C18:0, C28:0 and C24:0 primary alcohols, respectively. Transgenic expression of the three TaFARs in tomato fruit and Arabidopsis cer4 mutant led to increased production of C22:0-C30:0 primary alcohols. GFP-fusion protein injection assay showed that the three encoded TaFAR proteins were localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the site of wax biosynthesis. The transcriptional expression of the three TaFAR genes was induced by cold, salt, drought and ABA. Low air humidity led to increased expression of TaFAR genes and elevated wax accumulation in wheat leaves. Collectively, these data suggest that TaFAR2, TaFAR3 and TaFAR4 encode active alcohol-forming FARs involved in the synthesis of primary alcohol in wheat leaf and the response to environmental stresses.

DOI10.1038/srep25008