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Twenty years of interface development for capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry

TitleTwenty years of interface development for capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2008
AuthorsMaxwell, EJ, Chen, DDY
JournalAnalytica Chimica Acta
Volume627
Pagination25-33
Date PublishedOct
Type of ArticleReview
ISBN Number0003-2670
KeywordsBEVELED EDGE, capillary electrophoresis, DESIGN, electrospray ionization, EMITTERS, FLOW NANOSPRAY, FUSED-SILICA CAPILLARY, interface development, JUNCTION INTERFACE, LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY, MASS SPECTROMETRY, MICRO-ELECTROSPRAY, SHEATHLESS CAPILLARY, ZONE-ELECTROPHORESIS
Abstract

Capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry has the potential to become a preferred tool for the analysis of biological mixtures and other complex samples. The development of improved interfaces in the past twenty years has been critical in demonstrating the feasibility of this technique. However, a compromise still exists between interfaces that give optimal performance and those that are practical for commercial applications. The first section of this review focuses on the technological advances in CE-ESI-MS as they relate to the key interface features for both sheath-flow and sheathless systems: delivery of the sheath liquid, shaping of the emitter tip, formation of electrical contact, and practicality in terms of ease of use and lifetime. In the second section, we review the fundamental processes that affect interface performance. Because of the complex natures of both capillary electrophoresis and electrospray ionization, flow rate, arrangement of the electrical circuit, electrochemistry, tip geometry and location of electrical contact must all be carefully managed in the design of a successful interface. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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