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Toward understanding the Hofmeister series. 1. Effects of sodium salts of some anions on the molecular organization of H2O

TitleToward understanding the Hofmeister series. 1. Effects of sodium salts of some anions on the molecular organization of H2O
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2004
AuthorsKoga, Y, Westh, P, Davies, JV, Miki, K, Nishikawa, K, Katayanagi, H
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry A
Volume108
Pagination8533-8541
Date PublishedOct
Type of ArticleArticle
ISBN Number1089-5639
Keywords1-PROPANOL, 25-DEGREES-C, ALKANE-MONO-OLS, AQUEOUS-SOLUTIONS, fluctuations, MIXING SCHEMES, PARTIAL MOLAR ENTHALPIES, THERMODYNAMIC APPROACH, WATER
Abstract

We studied a detailed thermodynamic behavior of 1-propanol (abbreviated as 1P) in mixed solvents of aqueous Na2SO4, NaOOCCH3, and NaClO4, and NaSCN. We measured the excess partial molar enthalpy of 1P, H-1P(E), in these mixed solvents at various initial salt concentrations. We then evaluated what we call the enthalpic interaction, H-1P-1P(E) = (partial derivativeH(1P)(E)/partial derivativen(1P)), where n(1P) is the amount of 1P. The composition dependence of H-1P-1P(E) changes in a characteristic manner on addition of a specific salt. This induced change in the behavior of H-1P-1P(E) is used to elucidate the effect of the salt on the molecular organization of H2O. Na+ ion seems to hydrate a number less than seven or eight molecules of H2O, leaving the bulk H2O outside the hydration shell unperturbed. SO42- also hydrates a number less than 26 H2O molecules with a concomitant increase in the degree of fluctuation of the bulk H2O. Na2SO4 as a whole hydrates the total of 26 H2O. CH3COO- ion modifies H2O in a similar manner as an alcohol. Cl- ion hydrates a number less than seven or eight H2O molecules leaving the bulk H2O in the same state as in pure H2O. NaCl as a whole hydrates the total of seven or eight molecules of H2O. ClO4- and SCN- participate in hydrogen bonding with the hydrogen bond network of H2O keeping its connectivity intact. However, they reduce the degree of fluctuation inherent in liquid H2O. Thus, each ion has its own unique manner of modifying H2O, except that ClO4- and SCN- modify H2O in almost the same way. Therefore, it seems fair to state that the phenomenological net result manifested as the Hofmeister series is due to multifacetted factors working in the holistic manner, and a single or a small number of parameters is not sufficient to explain its effect.

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