|Title||Surface Composition Dependence on the Ice Nucleating Ability of Potassium-Rich Feldspar|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2020|
|Authors||Yun, J, Link, N, Kumar, A, Shchukarev, A, Davidson, J, Lam, A, Walters, C, Xi, Y, Boily, J-F, Bertram, AK|
|Journal||ACS EARTH AND SPACE CHEMISTRY|
|Date Published||MAY 2020|
Mineral dust particles are one of the most abundant types of ice nucleating particles in the atmosphere. During atmospheric transport, these particles can be coated with water-soluble solutes, which can modify their ice nucleating ability. Although previous studies have shown that even low concentrations of water-soluble solutes can modify the ice nucleating properties of mineral dust particles, our understanding of this topic is far from complete. We examined the effects of a series of alkali metal nitrates at low concentrations (5 × 10–5 M to 5 × 10–3 M) on the surface composition and immersion freezing of potassium-rich feldspar (K-rich feldspar). Immersion freezing was investigated with the droplet freezing technique, and the surface composition was investigated with cryogenic X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. K+ increased the median freezing temperature of the droplets, while the other alkali metal cations either had no effect or decreased the median freezing temperature. The changes in the median freezing temperature of the droplets due to the presence of nitrates followed the order K+ ≥ Li+ ≥ Na+ ≥ Rb+ ≥ Cs+ and, except for Cs+, were correlated to the K/Al ratio at the surface of K-rich feldspar. The K/Al ratio is possibly an indicator of the abundance of certain types of K-bearing microcline surfaces that drive the immersion freezing of K-rich feldspar, while Cs+ likely influences the immersion freezing of K-rich feldspar by an additional mechanism, possibly blocking ice nucleation sites by adsorption. Our work also shows that the cation charge density (charge density over the surface area of a single cation) is not a good predictor of the effects of cations on the immersion freezing of K-rich feldspar in our experiments.