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Responses of plant calmodulin to endocytosis induced by rare earth elements

TitleResponses of plant calmodulin to endocytosis induced by rare earth elements
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsWang, L, Cheng, M, Chu, Y, Li, X, Chen, DDY, Huang, X, Zhou, Q
JournalCHEMOSPHERE
Volume154
Pagination408-415
Date PublishedJUL
ISSN0045-6535
Abstract

The wide application of rare earth elements (REEs) have led to their diffusion and accumulation in the environment. The activation of endocytosis is the primary response of plant cells to REEs. Calmodulin (CaM), as an important substance in calcium (Ca) signaling systems, regulating almost all of the physiological activities in plants, such as cellular metabolism, cell growth and division. However, the response of CaM to endocytosis activated by REEs remains unknown. By using immunofluorescence labeling and a confocal laser scanning microscope, we found that trivalent lanthanum {[}La(III)], an REE ion, affected the expression of CaM in endocytosis. Using circular dichroism, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and computer simulations, we demonstrated that a low concentration of La(III) could interact with extra cellular CaM by electrostatic attraction and was then bound to two Ca-binding sites of CaM, making the molecular structure more compact and orderly, whereas a high concentration of La(III) could be coordinated with cytoplasmic CaM or bound to other Ca-binding sites, making the molecular structure more loose and disorderly. Our results provide a reference for revealing the action mechanisms of REEs in plant cells. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

DOI10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.03.106