Synthesis and characterization of well-defined hydrophilic block copolymer brushes by aqueous ATRP
|Title||Synthesis and characterization of well-defined hydrophilic block copolymer brushes by aqueous ATRP|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2004|
|Authors||Kizhakkedathu JN, Kumar KR, Goodman D, Brooks DE|
|Type of Article||Article|
|Keywords||AMBIENT-TEMPERATURE, aqueous atom transfer radical polymerization, ATOMIC-FORCE MICROSCOPY, BRUSHES, CONTROLLED GROWTH, hydrophilic diblock copolymers, LIGHT-SCATTERING, METHYL-METHACRYLATE, POLY(N,N-DIMETHYLACRYLAMIDE), POLYELECTROLYTE BRUSHES, POLYMER BRUSHES, SELF-ASSEMBLED MONOLAYERS, SIZE-EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY, TRANSFER RADICAL POLYMERIZATION|
Homopolymer brushes of poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) (PDMA), poly(methoxyethylacrylamide) (PMEA) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)(PNIPAM) grown on atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiator functionalized latex particles were used as macroinitiators for the synthesis of PDMA-b-PNIPAM/PMEA, PMEA-b-PDMA/PNIPAM and PNIPAM-b-PDMA block copolymer brushes by surface initiated aqueous ATRP. The grafted homopolymer and block copolymer brushes were analyzed for molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, chain grafting density, composition and hydrodynamic thickness (HT) using gel permeation chromatography-multi-angle laser light scattering, H-1 NMR, particle size analysis and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. The measured graft molecular weight increased following the second ATRP reaction in all cases, indicating the second block had been added. Chain growth depended on the nature of the monomer used for block copolymerization and its concentration. Unimodal distribution of polymer chains in GPC with non-overlap of molar mass-elution volume curves implied an efficient block copolymerization. This was supported by the increase in HT measured by particle size analysis, equilibrium thickness observed by AFM and the composition of the block copolymer layer by H-1 NMR analysis, both in situ and on cleaved chains in solution. 1H NMR analysis of the grafted latex and cleaved polymers from the surface demonstrated that accurate determination of the copolymer composition by this method is possible without detaching polymer chains from surface. Block copolymer brushes obey the same power law dependence of HT on molecular weight as homopolymer brushes in good solvent conditions. The NIPAM-containing block copolymer brushes were sensitive to changes in the environment as shown by a decrease in HT with increase in the temperature of the medium. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.