|Title||Kinetic analyses of retaining endo-(xylo)glucanases from plant and microbial sources using new chromogenic xylogluco-oligosaccharide aryl glycosides|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2008|
|Authors||Ibatullin, FM, Baumann, MJ, Greffe, L, Brumer, H|
A library of phenyl beta-glycosides of xylogluco-oligosaccharides was synthesized via a chemoenzymatic approach to produce new, specific substrates for xyloglucanases. Tamarind xyloglucan was completely hydrolyzed to four, variably galactosylated component oligosaccharides based on GlC(4) backbones, using a Trichoderma endo-glucanase mixture. Oligosaccharide complexity could be further reduced by beta-galactosidase treament. Subsequent per-O-acetylation, alpha-bromination, phase-transfer glycosylation, and Zemplen deprotection yielded phenyl glycosides of XXXG and XLLG oligosaccharides with a broad range of aglycon pK(a) values. Kinetic and product analysis of the action of the archetypal plant endo-xyloglucanase, Tropaeolum majus NXG1, on these compounds indicated that formation of the glycosyl-enzyme intermediate was rate-limiting in the case of phenol leaving groups with pK(a) values of >7, leading exclusively to substrate hydrolysis. Conversely, substrates with aglycon pK(a) values of 5.4 gave rise to a significant amount of transglycosylation products, indicating a change in the relative rates of formation and breakdown of the glycosyl-enzyme, intermediate for these faster substrates. Notably, comparison of the initial rates of XXXG-Ar and XLLG-Ar conversion indicated that catalysis by TmNXG1 was essentially insensitive to the presence of galactose in the negative subsites for all leaving groups. More broadly, analysis of a selection of enzymes from CAZy families GH 5, 12, and 16 indicated that the phenyl glycosides are substrates for anomeric configuration-retaining endo-xyloglucanases but are not substrates for strict xyloglucan endo-transglycosylases (XETs). The relative activities of the GH 5, 12, and 16 endo-xyloglucanases toward GGGG-CNP, XXXG-CNP, and XLLG-CNP reflected those observed using analogous high molar mass polysaccharides. These new chromogenic substrates may thus find wide application in the discovery, screening, and detailed kinetic analysis of new xyloglucan-active enzymes.