|Title||IDENTIFICATION OF PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE INHIBITORS OF THE MICROCYSTIN CLASS IN THE MARINE-ENVIRONMENT|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||1993|
|Authors||Chen, DZX, Boland, MP, Smillie, MA, Klix, H, Ptak, C, Andersen, RJ, Holmes, CFB|
|Type of Article||Article|
|Keywords||DIARRHETIC SHELLFISH TOXINS, HIGHER-PLANTS, LR, nodularin, OKADAIC ACID, POTENT, TYPE-1|
Toxins produced by marine phytoplankton represent a severe global health hazard to humans that eat seafood and are also responsible for massive natural fish kills in specialized bloom situations. Tumour-promoting hepatotoxins from the freshwater microcystin/nodularin class were identified in Northeastern Pacific Ocean, Eastern Canadian and European mussels for the first time. These hepatotoxins were detected at biologically active levels up to three-fold higher than accepted quarantine levels for the diarrhetic shellfish toxin okadaic acid (OA), based on their activity (in microcystin-LR equivalent units) in a liquid chromatography (LC)-linked protein phosphatase bioassay. The presence of microcystins/nodularins in oceanic shellfish identifies a potentially novel class of intoxication which is also prevalent in other forms of marine aquatic life, namely sponges and fish. The widespread presence of prokaryotic microcystins and nodularins in the marine environment may be indicative of the importance of signal transduction pathways involving potent inhibition of protein phosphatases in early marine eukaryotes.
|URL||<Go to ISI>://A1993MM43000005|