|Title||The ice-nucleating activity of Arctic sea surface microlayer samples and marine algal cultures|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2020|
|Authors||Ickes, L, Porter, GCE, Wagner, R, Adams, MP, Bierbauer, S, Bertram, AK, Bilde, M, Christiansen, S, Ekman, AML, Gorokhova, E, Höhler, K, Kiselev, AA, Leck, C, Möhler, O, Murray, BJ, Schiebel, T, Ullrich, R, Salter, M|
|Journal||ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS|
|Date Published||SEP 2020|
In recent years, sea spray and the biological material it contains has received increased attention as a source of ice nucleating particles (INPs). Such INPs may play a role in remote marine regions, where other sources of INPs are scarce or absent. Marine aerosol is of diverse nature, so identifying sources of INPs is challenging. One fraction of marine bioaerosol, phytoplankton and their exudates, has been a particular focus of marine INP research. In our study we attempt to address three main questions. Firstly, we compare the ice nucleating ability of two common phytoplankton species with Arctic seawater microlayer samples using the same instrumentation to see if these phytoplankton species produce ice nucleating material with sufficient activity to account for the ice nucleation observed in Arctic microlayer samples. We present first measurements of the ice nucleating ability of two predominant phytoplankton species, Melosira arctica, a common Arctic diatom species and Skeletonema marinoi, a ubiquitous diatom species across oceans worldwide. To determine the potential effect of nutrient conditions and characteristics of the algal culture, such as the amount of organic carbon associated with algal cells, on the ice nucleation activity, the Skeletonema marinoi was grown under different nutrient regimes. From comparison of the ice nucleation data of the algal cultures to those obtained from a range of sea surface microlayer (SML) samples obtained during three different field expeditions to the Arctic (ACCACIA, NETCARE, ASCOS) we found that although these diatoms do produce ice nucleating material, they were not as ice active as the investigated microlayer samples. Secondly, to improve our understanding of local Arctic marine sources as atmospheric INP we applied several aerosolisation techniques to analyse the ice nucleating ability of aerosolised microlayer and algae samples. The aerosols were generated either by direct nebulisation of the undiluted bulk solutions, or by the addition of the samples to a sea spray simulation chamber filled with artificial seawater. The latter method generates aerosol particles using a plunging jet to mimic the process of oceanic wave-breaking. We observed that the aerosols produced using this approach can be ice active indicating that the ice nucleating material in seawater can indeed transfer to the aerosol phase. Thirdly, we attempted to measure ice nucleation activity across the entire temperature range relevant for mixed-phase clouds using a suite of ice nucleation measurement techniques- an expansion cloud chamber, a continuous flow diffusion chamber, and a cold stage. In order to compare the measurements made using the different instruments, we have normalised the data in relation to the mass of salt present in the nascent sea spray aerosol. At temperatures above 248 K some of the SML samples were very effective at nucleating ice, but there was substantial variability between the different samples. In contrast, there was much less variability between samples below 248 K. We discuss our results in the context of aerosol–cloud interactions in the Arctic with a focus on furthering our understanding of which INP types may be important in the Arctic atmosphere.