|Title||Determination of urinary prostaglandin E2 as a potential biomarker of ureteral stent associated inflammation|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2020|
|Authors||Huang, Z-A, Scotland, KB, Li, Y, Tan, J, Kung, SHY, Chew, BH, Chen, DDY, Lange, D|
|Journal||Journal of Chromatography B|
|Keywords||capillary electrophoresis, Cyclooxygenase-2, MASS SPECTROMETRY, Prostaglandin E, Ureteral stent associated inflammation|
Ureteral stents are the most widely used surgical implant in urology. However, they may cause adverse effects to patients, including pain, discomfort, and inflammation. In this work, the inflammatory effect of stent placement and the associated elevation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression were observed. Furthermore, a capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry (CE-MS) based approach was subsequently developed to quantify urinary prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a COX-2 metabolite known to contribute to inflammatory renal diseases, to further interrogate the role of this pathway. Urine samples were cleaned and preconcentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE), and an on-line sample stacking method was used for the enrichment of analytes. The accuracy, precision, and specificity of this method were validated. Standard addition methods were performed to assess the reliability of using deuterated internal standards (IS) in compensating the remaining matrix effect after SPE as well as the detector fluctuation. Through the analysis of 32 pig urine samples, a statistically significant increase of PGE2 was observed in the stented group compared to the unstented (P = 0.01) and the recovered (P = 0.004) groups. This work determined that stent placement may contribute to COX-2-dependent inflammation and developed a reliable CE-MS based methodology to quantify PGE2 in stented individuals that may further understand the biology of stent-associated inflammation and inform urologic patient management.